Development Architecture blog is designed for developers who have some troubles in their code.
This blog will be mainly on web development, though many of it's posts can be used also on software design.
I wish you nothing but the best,
Cloud computing was introduced this week as a giant client server
environment. Analyze the advantages and disadvantages of computing on
Cloud computing refers to anything that is involved in
delivering host-based services on the Internet. The services are of three types:
IaaS (Infrastructure-as-a-Service), PaaS (Platform-as-a-Service), and SaaS
(Software-as-a-Service). The term ‘cloud computing’ is derived from the symbol of
the cloud that often describes the Internet in flowcharts and diagrams.
Recently, cloud computing has become one of the most hyped
information technology topics of the decade (Enslin 2012). With cloud computing
one can access documents and applications from any part of the world. This
frees you from being bound to your computer at home. Miller says that cloud
computing is definitely not for everyone (Miller 2009). There are advantages
and disadvantages to this type of internet computing.
While analyzing the advantages, Miller says computing on the
internet results in lower IT infrastructure and software costs. This is
because, to handle their peak needs companies will not need to invest in more
powerful servers and equipments to handle the peaks. If the IT department uses
the computing power of the cloud to supplement internal computing resources, the
peak needs can be easily handled by servers and computers in the cloud. As for
software costs, with cloud computing IT staff are saved the cost of installing
and maintaining the software programs on every computer in the organization
Cloud computing also results in enhanced service
accessibility. This means that with this technology one can access services
that are otherwise unavailable. The vast majority of the function is performed
on the server-side, which means the user can run on a device with very little
capacity. This has opened up countless possibilities in the forms of mobile
phone and hand-help computers. This enables one to gain access to services from
multiple device types, whether laptops, desktops, mobile phones, and so on (Clarke
2009). Clarke further talks about the technical advantages of cloud computing
including professional backup and recovery, collaboration convenience,
scalability, and copyright convenience.
One may think that with all these benefits, cloud computing
may not have any disadvantages. However, that is not true. One of the main
limitations is that it requires high-speed internet connection at all times. A
lot of good features of portable computing create issues when you’re depending
on web-based applications. To solve this problem, certain web-based
applications are now being designed in such a way that one can work on a
desktop with internet connection. An example is Google Gears, which converts
Google’s web based applications to locally run applications (Miller 2009).
According to Miller another issue is the security of the
data on the cloud. There are possibilities of unauthorized access to your data
that is stored in the cloud. In addition, although the data is generally safe,
but if it happens to somehow get deleted, there is no way to create a backup.
In such cases, people generally lose all their information. Another
disadvantage that is subject to change in the near future is the limited
features of internet computing. Today not all web-based applications have the
unique features that their traditional desktop applications have.
As with everything else, cloud computing has its pros and
cons. Users must appreciate the advantages, disadvantages, and risks and then
carefully consider how it can be applicable to their specific needs (Clarke
2009). Wherever cloud computing is adopted, risk management must be planned and
·Clarke, R. (2009).
“Computing Clouds on the Horizon? Benefits and Risk’s from the User’s
·Enslin, Z. (2012). Cloud
computing adoption: Control objectives for information and related technology
(COBIT) - mapped risks and risk mitigating controls. African Journal of Business Management, Vol.6 (37), pp.
·Miller, M. (2009). Cloud Computing: Web-Based Applications That
Change the Way You Work and Collaborate Online. US: Que Publishing.
Architectures can be documented from several different perspectives.
Some of these are conceptual view, logical view, process view,
development view, and physical view. Choose one of these. Explain the primary documented approach (i.e. how is it represented). Discuss the advantages and disadvantages
There are several perspectives and methods for documenting
architectures. The need for documentation arises throughout the life time of a
system and it is used for specific purposes such as using the architecture as
the basis for downstream design or implementation; checking to see if design or
implementation conforms to the architecture; seeing if the architecture is
ready to support a formal evaluation for fitness of purpose; and using it to
support project planning (Nord, Clements, Emery, & Hillard 2009).
Phillippe Krutchen’s recent paper describes four main views
of software architectures that can be utilized in system building, plus a
special fifth view that ties all the other four together, i.e. the “four plus
one” approach to architecture (Krutchen 1995). The four main views are logical
view, process view, development view, and physical view.
In this article we will be looking at the logical documentation
approach. The logical view is based on the object model of the design, because
here an object-oriented design method is used. This approach focuses on the
functional needs of the system, emphasizing on the services that the system
provides to the users. In this approach, the system in question is broken down to
form a set group of abstractions, which are mostly taken as object classes or
objects, from the trouble area or domain. This break down helps to identify the
general functions or methods and elements of design across the different
elements of the specific system, as well as creates a scope for functional
analysis. They make use of the principle of inheritance, abstraction, and
inheritance (Krutchen 1995).
The Logical view is represented with the Booch approach
using class templates and diagrams (Booch 1993). Class diagrams depict a set
group of curriculum and their rational or coherent relationships, like
association, composition, usage, and so forward. Related groups of classes can
be combined together to form sets called class categories. On the other hand, class
templates take into account each class as an individual, and emphasize the
major group operations and recognize and classify the key characteristics of
In the Booch notation, only architecturally significant objects are
taken into consideration. Krutchen emphasizes the object-oriented style to
represent the logical view. He says that the principle guideline for logical
view design is to maintain a single, logical object-model across the complete
system in order to avoid untimely specialization or division of classes for
each processor and site.
Krutchen predicted an
iterative process for architectural design. It starts with describing the
critical scenarios. Next the architect can identify the key abstractions from
the troubled domain and model them in the Logical View. The logical classes can
be mapped to modules and packages in the Developmental View, and to tasks and
processes in the Process View. The process concludes with processes and modules
being mapped to the hardware in the Physical View. This shows that the four
views are not entirely independent of each other (May 2004).
However, in the architectural documentation of certain
systems, some views may be irrelevant, i.e. not all views are mandatory. The
main advantage of the Logical View is that is it mandatory for all system
documentation processes. In his paper, Krutchen says that Logical View
considers each object as active and potentially concurrent. This means that
each object behaves parallel to other objects, and more attention is given to
the exact degree of concurrency needed to achieve this effect.
This leads to
the one disadvantage of logical view, that is, it only considers the functional
aspect of the requirements.
All four architecture views are important in documentation.
The Logical view is important as it takes into account the functional
requirements of the system with major emphasis on the kind of services the
system provides for its users.
·Booch, G. (1993).
Object-Oriented Analysis and Design with Applications, 2nd ed. Redwood City,
·Kruchten, P. (1995).
“Architectural Blueprints - The “4+1”View Model of Software Architecture”. IEEE
·May. N. (2004) “A Survey of
Software Architecture Viewpoint Models”. ISO/IEC 10746 [Online]. Available:
Privacy and/or security
issues are inherent in large databases. Who owns the data about a particular
person: medical, credit, personal, financial, consumer information, etc.?
Support your position.
database is specialized to manage and handle data in a computer application
system. Data can be stored in many forms, like text, symbols, digital, images,
graphics, and even sound. Various sectors like government, public security,
finance, medical, energy, business, taxation, transportation, social,
education, corporate and other sectors have formed their own databases application
systems to store large amounts of information in the database, to handle and
use, in order to lead the society into this information era. With the advance
in internet applications, databases have a greater role to play (Ji 2011).
further goes on to say that while development of these database applications
systems has brought about social development and progress, it has also created
issues of security and privacy of the stored data. The potential safety hazards
for large databases are great, owing to their universality. One example is a
hospital database where illegal invasion leads to stealing of numerous
patients’ private information.
the question is who owns this data? Who is responsible for it? Data ownershipmeans both possession of and
responsibility for the data. Ownership refers to power and control both. (Loshlin
2001).Telling the consumer that he "owns" his corporate data is very
dangerous. If he tries to exercise his "rights" of ownership it could
have disastrous repercussions on the enterprise and its data. The term
"stewardship" is a better term to explain this. It involves a broader
responsibility and here where the user must consider the consequences of changing
"his" data (Scofield 1998).
about medical data? Who owns it? There was never a doubt when it was about
paper records. It was mainly the clinicians and insurers who owned the medical
records. But with the development of electronic health information, it becomes
problematic. The law gives patients the rights of privacy and access to their
own records but federal and state laws do not give property rights to patients.
Patients do not have the right to solely possess or destroy their original records
(Hall & Schulman 2009)
the enforcement of laws like Health Insurance Portability and Accountability
Act (HIPAA) and requirements of Sarbanes Oxley (SOX) auditors, organizations
are beginning to realize the importance of securing their data properly .First
of all, the data is classified into private, company confidential, company
restricted,and public. This
classification of data is done by the owner. Here the owner is the director or
head of the organization. For a financial organization it may be the CFO.
data owner is responsible for setting up a policy so that only authorized
people can access and see the data. The data owner must also determine who has
access to the data; how the data should be kept secure, for how long the data
must be retained, what the appropriate disposal methods are, and whether the
data should be encrypted.(Woodbury
is a complicating issue. What information should remain private, and in what
situations? Consider credit information. When someone applies for a credit card
it is considered private information, although in order to receive that credit,
a credit bureau is consulted. At that point, the fact that the credit card
application has been taken is now added to the credit record.
says that appropriate data ownership and data classification are key elements
in an organization’s security policy. Without these, it will be difficult to
implement a security policy. An organization, be it finance, medical, credit,
or consumer related, will not be able to meet the regulatory and internal
requirements regarding access control for its data, without this.
·Hall, M.A. and Schulman, K.A. (2009). Ownership of
Medical Information. The Journal of the
American Medical Association, 301 (12), p. 1282-1284.
·Ji, J. (2011). Security
Issues with Databases [Online]. Available at:
Select a technology, such
as electricity, the internal combustion engine, television, the telephone, etc.,
and describe how the invention and widespread adoption of this technology
changed society. Who benefited or lost out due to the adoption of the
The invention of the television is a momentous landmark in
the much trodden path of technological advancements that have changed and
shaped the ways in which individuals, communities and cultures interact and
relate to each other.
Though scientific and technological research led to the
invention of the television, it soon emerged as a powerful medium of
communication that not only had tremendous impact on news media and
entertainment but also challenged the structure of family, cultural and social
In 1962 Malvina Reynolds composed a song about “little
boxes” kept inside the other little boxes made of “ticky tacky” and in the blink
of an eye the television became a powerful symbol associated with middle-class
conformity. Though the little box was not all pervasive in those days as it has
become now, Pete Seeger who sang the song had the idea just right decades ago.
The paradox is that even as television has brought the world
together, it has driven wedges among people. Watching it is no longer a group
activity as it was in the 60s or the 70s; family has disappeared into separate
rooms and the nation hardly comes together except for rare broadcast of a
disaster or a celebration (Katz and Liebes 2007).
Until a decade ago it was our major source of entertainment,
news, sports scores, weather reports and other information. It was our window
to the world and our most persuasive salesperson which continually tries to
create new demands. Internationalization through satellite television has led
to pluralism which is far removed from the earlier network-defined linguistic and
cultural constraints. This is also seen by many as undermining of the shared
bases of democracy and community.
the power of this medium and have been using a number of strategy like rapid
paced format and other special effects (Biggens
1989; Huston & Wright 1989) to hold the attention of the audience,
especially the children whose vulnerability and largely unmonitored exposure to
advertising through television has aroused regulatory concern all across the
world, especially in developing countries where the regulatory codes are not
yet well defined. Persuasive marketing strategists are gearing up to create
customers for life (Donahoo
2007) even as they are inveighed with charges like gender stereotyping,
promoting unhealthy body images and consumption behaviors. Armed with the
powerful visual impact of television, advertisements have been able to dictate
consumer behavior and create markets for new products.
Until the 80s theories
related to television watching were implicit with negative connotations but
over the years television has also emerged as an educational tool. Research has
favorably evaluated the effectiveness
of curriculum-based television programming for children in areas as diverse as science,
social skills, mathematics, and literacy (Bryant, Alexander and Brown 2004) and
established a co-relation between enhanced short and long term learning through
The television has called a variety of names— from the idiot
box to the devil’s instrument but its contribution and all pervasive influence
on the modern cultures and societies cannot be denied or overlooked. The
multi-faceted application attributes of “second screen” gadgets like PCs,
tablets and cell phones have gradually usurped the central position television
enjoyed in our lives but the television is not ready for the dump heap yet. As
a medium of entertainment and information it has still retained a measure of
its relevance and usage.
(1989).Violence on Australian television. Television violence
to Australian Broadcasting Tribunal's inquiry.
D (2007). Idolising Children.
University of New South Wales Press Ltd. Sydney. p164-165, 169, 177.
·J. Bryant, A. F. Alexander & D. Brown, Learning from Educational
Television Programs, Learning from Television: Psychological and Educational
Research. M. J. A. Howe (ed.) London: Academic Press, 1983), pp. 1–30.
Katz, Elihu & Liebes, Tamar
( 2007). No More Peace: How terror, disaster and war have upstaged media
events. International Journal of
& Wright J (1989). Interview reported in Biggens, B. Violence on
Australian television. Television violence and children. Report to
Australian Broadcasting Tribunal's Inquiry.